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And while there are an estimatedstreetwalking prostitutes operating in the U. At one extreme, we see exemplars of prostitutes with hearts of gold in movies such as Pretty Woman, Leaving Las Vegas, and Taxi Driver, while at the other extreme we are exposed to images of black fishnets, knee-length boots, and drug abuse. Rarely does the media provide an accurate portrayal of prostitution or the pimp-prostitute relationship.

Given the general ignorance and misperceptions about prostitution and the pimp-prostitute relationship, there is potential for social science through expert testimony to illuminate relevant aspects of such a relationship. And while the Court has rarely allowed expert testimony to establish adjudicative facts about prostitutes and pimps, the Court has been amenable to allowing social framework testimony on the relationship between pimp and prostitute.

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Social framework testimony seems especially appropriate in these cases as Monahan and Walker state: "[Social] frameworks often tell jurors something they do not already know, or disabuse them of common but erroneous perceptions. Case Studies United States v.

WilliamsU. As part of its case, the Government proposed to call Dr. Sharon W. Cooper as an expert witness, to testify to three issues: 1 the societal and criminal justice implications of prostitution and the sexual exploitation of women; 2 the medical and mental-health aspects of prostitution, including general testimony on victim risk and vulnerability factors and on common methods of grooming and deterrents to escape; 3 and the medical and mental-health impact that life as a prostitute had on certain women involved in this case Issue: I Whether Dr. Rationale: Daubert Analysis Overall the court found that Dr.

Cooper had specialized knowledge: Dr. Cooper submitted curriculum vitae and during the Daubert hearing Dr. Cooper is board-certified, has practiced for more than two decades, both as a civilian and military doctor; Dr. Cooper has evaluated and treated individuals who have been sexually exploited, is familiar with relevant literature, lectures internationally on the subject, and has co-authored two books.

The court found that this evidence was not probative as to whether the defendants engaged in the criminal conspiracy to traffic women; it would not aid the jury in assessing whether the crime was committed.

The 6 types of prostitutes and where they work

It was irrelevant and would unduly prejudice the defendants. The court wrote that "While such testimony is well suited for congressional hearings on appropriate penalties, it would not aid a juror in assessing whether a crime was committed. The court recognized that the criteria normally used to guide reliability as identified by the Supreme Court was not applicable in this case. The court found, however, that the general information that Dr. Cooper intended to proffer was already subjected to peer review, that her conclusions were generally accepted in the field and that Dr. Cooper was familiar with the body of literature addressing prostitution.

Cooper would be providing information on the dynamics of the typical pimp-prostitute relationship, the methods of grooming prostitutes and the deterrents to escaping. Cooper would also testify about syndromes related to young women in prostitution, specifically commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth syndrome "CSECY". The court found that this evidence could help explain why women did not leave their pimps and could address the vulnerability and enticement of women.

Generally, it would help to "demystify the relationship between pimp and prostitute" and would "provide a framework … which … [will] enable the jury to more meaningfully evaluate whether the element of coercion has been established by the Government beyond a reasonable doubt.

The court noted that Dr. Cooper did not locate the medical records of the women and that Dr. Cooper diagnosed the women based on telephone conversations that lasted 1 hour, which even Dr. For example, during the course of one of the 1-hour conversation, Dr. Cooper diagnosed one woman with seven types of physical injuries and eight different mental health conditions.

Cooper did not elicit information from the women about what happened to them or their victimization, nor about their willingness to become a prostitute or desire to leave. II Procedural Issues regarding Dr. Cooper regarding her conversations with the women in the case and providing her diagnosis of 5 of 10 of the women.

The Government also sought to introduce evidence regarding one witness Dr. Cooper interviewed the morning of the trial. The court held that this would prevent defense counsel from investigating the reasoning and information in the opinion and was therefore inadmissible, contrary to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. KingF. Cooper at trial.

How pimps keep a girl in prostitution

Part of what the government needed to prove is that the victims prostituted themselves on behalf of the Defendant as their pimp because of force, fraud and coercion. The government intended to call Dr. Cooper to testify about 1 the typical means of targeting and recruiting prostitutes 2 information about the ways that pediatric development, family dysfunction, and the use of drugs can make adult and adolescent minor victims more susceptible to influence by sex traffickers, and 3 common ways that sex traffickers use force and coercion to maintain control over the victims' actions and to prevent them from leaving the relationship.

On March 16,the Court conducted a Daubert hearing on the motion. The Defendant argued that Dr. Cooper was not "the right expert to provide profiling testimony on pimps and sex trafficking organizations".

Among other aspects of Dr. Cooper has been qualified as an expert in court more than times, qualified as an expert in federal courts fifteen to twenty times, and twice qualified in federal court as an expert regarding pimp-prostitute relationship dynamic. The court found Dr. Cooper testified that her methodologies in developing her expertise were based on her medical practice, including personal interviews, reviewing the work of other researchers, clinical case analyses and investigative intelligence from law enforcement professionals, which include under-cover officers.

The Court found that Dr. Testimony regarding the effects of prostitution rings on society at large or discussion about the violence used by pimps was irrelevant. The court would allow testimony that would assist the jury in assessing the credibility of the prostitutes, in understanding the circumstances that make certain persons susceptible to prostitution, the reasons to stay with a pimp even when beaten and why victims may minimize the culpability of pimps. The court felt that without Dr. United States v.

Educational background of international judges is more decisive than nationality

AndersonF. Lois Lee, a government witness, on the modus operandi of pimps and on the pimp-prostitute relationship. Lois Lee, the government's expert witness, testified on the modus operandi of pimps and on the nature of the relationship between pimps and prostitutes. Specifically, Dr. Lee testified: 1 "Sophisticated pimps usually travel in an intercity circuit with a group of ten to forty girls working for them" 2 "Recruits are usually vulnerable young women, often runaways who have been abused or neglected by their families" 3 "[A] pimp will encourage his prostitutes to compete for his affection by earning money, and will beat his prostitutes if they fail to adhere to his rules" 4 "Prostitutes are often so financially and psychologically dependent on their pimps that they are unable to leave even when they are beaten" 5 "Pimps usually spend the money earned by their prostitutes on drugs, clothes, and jewelry, since the ability to support a "flashy" lifestyle is a source of status in their subculture" 6 "On several ways in which the pimp-prostitute relationship ends-the prostitute becomes pregnant, goes on welfare, turns to more serious kinds of crime, commits suicide, or dies at the hands of a customer".

Relevance Anderson claimed Dr. Undue Prejudice Anderson contended that even if Dr. Lee's testimony were relevant, it should have been excluded because "its probative value [was] substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice.

TaylorF. The court held that the testimony was properly admitted because it assisted the jury in evaluating the credibility of the prostitute, a minor, who worked for Lavon Taylor. Counsel for the appellant had sought to undermine the prostitute-witness on cross examination. The court stated that: "By and large, the relationship between prostitutes and pimps is not the subject of common knowledge.

A trier of fact who is in the dark about that relationship may be unprepared to assess the veracity of an alleged pimp, prostitute, or other witness testifying about prostitution. WintersF. Court allowed expert testimony from psychiatrist Dr. The court also allowed testimony from forensic psychologist Raymond Cameron who had worked with police vice unites.

EvansF. District court allowed testimony of Sergeant Andrew Schmidt, a Minneapolis police officer, without holding a Daubert hearing. Sergeant Schmidt testified regarding the operation of prostitution ring, including recruitment of prostitutes and the relationship between pimps and prostitutes, and regarding jargon used in such rings.

Appellate court held that the District Court does not always have to hold a Daubert hearing prior to qualifying an expert witness. For Further Study: Dr. Sylvia A. Lisa E. Search this site Search Cornell. Student Projects.

Sharon Cooper Dr. Lee testified: 1 "Sophisticated pimps usually travel in an intercity circuit with a group of ten to forty girls working for them" 2 "Recruits are usually vulnerable young women, often runaways who have been abused or neglected by their families" 3 "[A] pimp will encourage his prostitutes to compete for his affection by earning money, and will beat his prostitutes if they fail to adhere to his rules" 4 "Prostitutes are often so financially and psychologically dependent on their pimps that they are unable to leave even when they are beaten" 5 "Pimps usually spend the money earned by their prostitutes on drugs, clothes, and jewelry, since the ability to support a "flashy" lifestyle is a source of status in their subculture" 6 "On several ways in which the pimp-prostitute relationship ends-the prostitute becomes pregnant, goes on welfare, turns to more serious kinds of crime, commits suicide, or dies at the hands of a customer" A.